Fiber optics is a method of communication where pulses of light travelling within an optical fiber transmit information from one place to another.
For proper communication to take place, light signals are encoded with data and the optical fiber transmits this data by the use of light, to a receiving end where the light signal is decoded makes fiber optics a transmission medium that carries signals over long distances at very high speeds. Fiber is often chosen over electric cabling when long-distance, high bandwidth, and avoiding electromagnetic interference are a necessity.
Being able to join optical fibers with low loss is important in fiber optic communication. This is more complex than joining electrical wire or cable and involves careful cleaving of the fibers, precise alignment of the fiber cores, and the coupling of these aligned cores. For applications that demand a permanent connection, a fusion splice is common.
A majority of telecommunication companies use optical fiber to transmit internet connection, telephone, and cable television signals. The optical fiber is the foundation of many computer networks. In recent years, fiber optic cables have become the backbone of wide-area and local area networks as they carry information underground, through walls, in the ceilings, and in many other places.
There are different types of fiber optic cables that are used during the fiber optic cable assembly process. Single fibers allow the travel of light while multimode fibers send data over short distances. This combination enables the optic cables to work seamlessly.
The infographic below explains the history and evolution of the fiber optic cable.